June 24, 2016 at 1:29 pm #11419
The drought risk is a product of hazard and vulnerability:Risk=Hazard x Vulnerability
In simple words the hazard is some force of nature (e.g. rainfall deficiencies)while the vulnerability is dependent on, among others, social, economic and ecological characteristics of the area/region/nation. While the hazard cannot be controlled, the only way to reduce risk is to reduce vulnerability (increase resilience). Looking at impacts/consequences vulnerability has to be seen together with exposure which is a combination of intensity, areas coverage and frequency of occurrence of the hazard.
The Hyogo Framework for action has five key elements:
-Policy and Governance
-Drought Risk Identification, impact assessment and early warning
-Drought Awareness and knowledge management
-Reducing underlying factors of drought risk
In the perspective of the paradigm shift towards more emphasis on pro-active actions reducing vulnerabilities rather than just providing reactions to a disaster, brainstorm and give comments and observations on one or more of the following issues:
-How can policy measures influence vulnerability (a policy prescribes who gets what, when and how)?
-Which legal issues come up during a drought regarding water permits?
-Which institutions (parts of the governance system) has to come into play before, during and after a serious drought and what will their roles be?
-What are the key elements of vulnerability (social, economic, ecologic)?
-Which tools/mechanisms/approaches can be used to reduce vulnerabilities (e.g. demand management, rainwater harvesting etc.)?
June 24, 2016 at 8:50 pm #11454
An implementation of effective policy measure will help to reduce vulnerability to drought. For example, since poverty is one of the drivers of drought risk, a policy that addresses welfare of the citizen will increase their resilience to drought which is one of the reasons why most developed countries do not really feel the impact of drought compared to developing countries of Africa and Asia.
It is well known that access to quality water is still a mirage to millions across Sub Saharan Africa. This is so critical that people pay through their nose before they can get sufficient water for survival in both rural and urban areas. For example, larger percentage of monthly income is used to access water for household and industrial used in Nigeria especially in the cities while those in the rural areas have no choice than to go for less quality water. This has brought about the emergence of “pure water industry” in the Nigeria. Experimental studies on the water produced from the industries has even showed that some of water supply are not up to the required standard. A good policy that address access to quality water and efficient water management will definitely reduce the influence of vulnerability.
June 29, 2016 at 1:11 pm #11580
Dear Fakunle, thanks for raising these valid points on links between poverty, water quality and resilience. Often you will see that it is argued that a high Human Development Index(HDI) gives better possibilities to increase resilience. HDI is an aggregate of Healthy Life – Knowledge – Standard of Living.
Best regards from Jan Hassing
July 1, 2016 at 4:54 pm #11627
Many thanks for your comment.
Concerning those in the rural areas (mostly in developing countries) who have no choice than to go for less quality water.
Do high Human Development Index(HDI) still gives better possibilities to increase their resilience?
From Wamba André Le Doux
June 29, 2016 at 4:16 pm #11585
In addition for quality wise as mentioned by Fakunle,the decrease in water quantity also has contribution to the quality of water. Therefore,effective water quality management in both developed, transitional and developing countries can be achieved by incorporation of legal and regulatory instruments which better enhance the management of water quality. In addition,knowing the roles of each institution,decision making and coordination might tackle the world’s challenges with regard to quality and quantity
June 30, 2016 at 10:41 am #11597
Dear Pheko, thank you very much for your thoughtful intervention. You are touching on some of the essentials of water resources management which indeed must be intensified during times of drought and water scarcity. Many aspects are included in IWRM being promoted by for instanace Cap-Net and agreed globally as part of the Sustainble Development Goals (2030) – see goal 6.5. Best Regards from Jan Hassing
June 30, 2016 at 11:34 pm #11617
SEVERE FOSSI TUEKAMParticipant
A proactive approach that combines promising technological, institutional and policy solutions to manage the risks within vulnerable communities implemented by institutions operating at different levels (community,sub-national,andnational) is considered to be the way forward for managing drought and climate variability
July 1, 2016 at 6:12 am #11619
In fact having a national policy in place is an essential component in the DRM process to tackle the drought various impacts and to avoid reaching to the stage of costly crisis managment while planning for the climate change risk reduction. The checklist of the wide range historical and potential impacts mentioned in the policy guidleine prepared by Nibrasca University is worhthwhile and highly recomended to be used during the planning process with consideration to custimize it according to the national context. These considerations can facilitate the identification of vulnerability level and allow for a comprehensive vunerability assessment as a primary step for developing the DRM framework.
In Iraq, the economic impact can b seen clearly in the damage of rangelands which cannot be controlled and also in the ecosystems degradation and consecutive stress on the habitat of various species including fish ,cattle ,and crops causing direct threat to the food security and livelihood of the farmers and herders.
Vulnerability can only be reduced by inking the reduction of the existed natural fragility and susceptibility to long term strategies of improving the land use and water resoureces conservation in tandem with the development plans of the country . This has to be addressed as a national priority to be coordinated between all stakeholders and decision makers . In Iraq ,the government has recognized the importance to establish a national wate council which involve almost all ministries and which can later be responsible to manage a Drought Information and Mitigation Center.
July 1, 2016 at 5:22 pm #11629
Many thanks for your comment.
The establishment of a national water council is an example to copy in other countries (mostly in developing ones) because it is an essential component in the DRM process to facilitate the identification of vulnerability level and to manage a Drought Information both in urban and rural areas.
July 1, 2016 at 3:06 pm #11623
Dear Severe, thanks for your valuable comment. I particularly like your emphasis on a pro-active approach, since this represent a very useful shift in paradigm. Being proactive means using resources up front, before a drought event. I a situation of competition for scarce resources, financial, institutional and technical, a lot of political pressure has to be applied to make sure that the pro-active approach is implemented.
Dear Menahil, thank you for your thoughtful observations adding experience from Iraq. You stress the importance of a National Water Council with representation from almost all ministries. This will ensure coordination and that unilateral actions are not taken with funds likely to be used ineffectively.
Best Regards from Jan Hassing
July 2, 2016 at 4:14 am #11640
Drought management is a shared responsibility of all levels of government, the farming community, the private sector and civil society. In addition, the effect of a serious drought often goes beyond boundaries of one country to affect neighbouring ones since drought has no respect for borders.
One of regional institutions in Africa to manage drought information and mitigation is The Lac Chad Basin Commission (LCBC).
The priority of mitigation (awareness, avoidance, early warning, and rehabilitation) in the LCBC is by the protection of the critical resources and systems on which communities living around the Chad Basin depend (using a meaningful and adequate drought management planning process that is accepted by all).
The LCBC is home to pastoralists and agro-pastoralists communities and like the most other parts of Africa, these drylands have been badly hit by the ravaging drought.
The LCBC supports the system of open access to common-pool grazing resources since its creation in the 1960s, by the four countries bordering Lake Chad: Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The member countries recognise the importance of livestock for the economy in the Chad Basin, and its primary concerns are coordination of veterinary controls and facilitating livestock trade (and thus livestock movements) between countries.
In addition, the commission aims to regulate and control the use of water and other natural resources in the basin and to initiate, promote and coordinate natural resource development projects and research.
Thus, international agreements between Lake Chad Basin Commission member countries enable freedom of movement (to run away from drought and to even share success and failure experiences) for pastoralists in the Chad Basin, provided they have vaccinated their animals and paid the local and national taxes. This allows pastoralists from Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon and more recently the Central African Republic and Sudan which joined the LCBC to travel freely within the Chad Basin if they can show their certificate of vaccination and tax receipts.
From Wamba André Le Doux
July 2, 2016 at 5:58 am #11643
Policy can help reduce vulnerability / increase resilience to drought (and other hazards); However, poor policies could result in the opposite, so what makes good policy for drought? I feel policy and planning needs to be suitably framed, eg the Murray-Darling Basin Plan in Australia was developed in response to our Millennium Drought (~2000-2010). The MDBP is based spatially on catchment boundaries, this is an improvement on state-based boundaries of the past which led to poor policies. Additionally, the MDBP used scientific evidence-based data, collected over preceding years, and involved a wide range of stakeholders representing irrigators, indigenous groups, environmental experts, scientists and community groups.
These contributed to the Plan, which was backed up with legal authority; and included adaptive management so it can be continually improved. The Plan itself had multiple objectives which included environmental watering, sustainable diversion limits for the consumption of both surface and groundwater, and improved water accounting.
It is an ambitious plan, and there will no doubt be difficulties with respect to allocations, balancing costs and benefits, and properly understanding sustainability against a back-drop of changing climate.
July 3, 2016 at 10:44 am #11645
Dear Le Doux, thank you very much for contributing with your highly relevant opinions and the information about LCBC. Regarding the HDI index you are very right in that on the individual level, health, knowledge and living standard do not help a lot in a situation where you are stricken by drought and there is even further to go to a poor quality water source. However on the national and sub-national level, it is easier to take action on increasing resilience if you are working with a population which is easy to mobilize (knowledgeable, healthy/active, having spare time/not being occupied 24/7 on subsistence activities). Best Regards Jan Hassing
July 4, 2016 at 8:48 pm #11677
Thanks wamba for the extension of the discussion to cover transboundary issues correctly observing that droughts could extend beyond the confines of the country under consideration. It would be interesting to hear from this team some of the practical steps from especially the policy and governance perspective with regard to reducing vulnerabilities but also averting potential conflict that could accrue from failure to manage the process effectively.
July 12, 2016 at 4:10 am #11828
Am concern is with regards accountability to the ‘human rights’ when it comes to access to clean water. That is because in most nations, the driving force to achieve the clean water for all still lies with the political elites and it has been used to galvanise support for electoral office.
How and who should be held accountable for the implementation of human rights when it comes to human rights with regards access to clean water?
People in rural communities often suffer the most when there is drought, that is because, the little they have is been threatened by the increased demand, not forgetting to mention that it hardly met their water need.
August 9, 2016 at 8:35 am #12134
Vulnerability is a function of sensitivity to present climatic variability, the risk of adverse future climate change and capacity to adapt. The extent to which climate change may damage or harm a system; vulnerability is a function of not only the systems’ sensitivity, but also its ability to adapt to new climatic conditions. There are many aspects of vulnerability, arising from various physical, social, economic, and environmental factors. Examples may include poor design and construction of buildings, inadequate protection of assets, lack of public information and awareness, limited official recognition of risks and preparedness measures, and disregard for wise environmental management. Vulnerability varies significantly within a community and over time. Vulnerability can only be reduced by inking the reduction of the existed natural fragility and susceptibility to long term strategies of improving the land use and water resources conservation in tandem with the development plans of the country . This has to be addressed as a national priority to be coordinated between all stakeholders and decision makers .
November 20, 2018 at 9:49 am #20316
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