Home Forums DRR05 Drought Risk Reduction in IWRM DRR05: Forum for module 6

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This topic contains 9 replies, has 7 voices, and was last updated by  Federica Ferrari 2 years, 7 months ago.

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  • #11957
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    Kees Leendertse

    We invite you in this last forum of the course to refer to one drought emergency situation, either in your country, or one case that you have read about or being involved as part of your work.

    Having gone through all course modules, and in particular with the topics which form part of this current module, consider this emergency situation and share about one or more of the following issues:

    • Was there in the country where the drought emergency took place a step-by-step process for planning and coordination of drought emergency? What evidence can you use to determine that such a process was in place?
    • Where there any short term actions which minimized the emergency impacts?
    • Which specific actions where not applied and you would recommend?

    If it is difficult for you to refer to a real drought emergency situation, we invite you to reflect on the following:

    Think of factors that contribute to drought risk in your areas and the corresponding measures for preparedness and emergency. How effective are they?

  • #12026
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    Dear all,

    In Nigeria, drought has been and continues to be a major challenge to food security and health of Nigerians especially in northern part of the country and attention has always been given to it when it has got to advanced state. This means that intervention has always been directed to mitigating its impacts and little or no preventing measures are in place.

    Similarly, in a realistic manner, a step-by – step planning and coordination of drought emergency is not yet in place in the country however, developing organizations that deals with drought in Nigeria may have the ones they are using to support the country on the issue.

    Thank you

  • #12028
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    In response to question 2: Actions taken so far in Nigeria to minimize the emergency impact of drought

    . Digging of boreholes at community level to increase water availability
    . Planting of drought resistant trees especially in the states like Sokoto, Katsina, Kebbi states e.t.c
    . Enlightenment on the use of irrigation systems in the drought prone areas.
    . Restructuring and reconstruction of dams to improve water supply.

  • #12070
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    Dear all,
    In response to question 3 : Specific actions not applied and would be recommended.

    . Over the years Nigerian government has been making efforts to tackle drought, desertification and inadequate availability of quality water in the country. However, the efforts have not yield tangible result due to the following:

    . Stakeholders at community level were not carried along in the intervention planning.
    . Single approach of top-bottom was used and left out the bottom-top which will help to create a balance in the interventions.
    . There is little or no monitoring and evaluation system put in place.
    . Government depend too much on international organizations in terms of funds and performance. The end of the organization project usually marks the end of the intervention.
    . There is no strategies put in place for sustainability of such efforts.
    . There is no clearly spelt out drought policy in Nigeria. Everything is clump up on environment.
    . Most of the intervention efforts to reduce drought risks were hijacked by people with personal interest with no sacrificial minds.
    . Most of the dams are redundant since efforts to make it work has been limited.
    . There is lack of awareness at grassroot level among the rural farmers on least cost and sustainable methods of irrigation systems in drought risk areas.
    . There is lack of maintenance of the drought resistant trees planted and boreholes dug
    . Water corporations across the country is not efficient because they are not increasing their capacity to deliver good services as the population increases.
    . The little attention and efforts of Nigerian government has focused on meteorological and agricultural drought; leaving out hydro-logical and socio-economic droughts. These had led to mass suffering and increase in poverty level especially at peri-urban and rural level.
    . Each government tenure comes with her agenda which usually don’t build on existing solutions on drought reduction and water management.
    . There is inadequate infrastructural facilities in the country to address drought and /or ensure good water supply. Hence, the abundant water bodies in the country are not efficiently utilized.

    In summary, the use of integrated water resource management system need to be proper advocated for and used for the country to move ahead in addressing drought and other related issues.
    Thank you.

  • #12071
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    Dear all, some of the missing points in Nigeria efforts toward addressing drought include:

    • Lack of a national and regional drought policy framework;

    •Limited coordination institutions that provide different types of drought early warning, risk management and risk reduction, that results from a national policy;

    • Inadequate social impact indicators to form part of a comprehensive early warning system and inform policy response.

    • Lack of an encompassing vulnerability assessment that covers the entire regions of the country. This has made efforts to be focused only in the northern region with advanced drought stage and neglect of the southern region which may be in early stage that can easily be corrected and mitigated. For example, precipitation has drastically reduced in most parts of northern parts of Oyo state which is in southern part of Nigeria while access to sufficient and quality water is becoming more difficult in south eastern part of the country.

  • #12078
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    Dear Kees,

    (By André Le Doux Wamba)

    Think of factors that contribute to drought risk in your areas and the corresponding measures for preparedness and emergency. How effective are they?

    Factors that contribute to drought risk in northern Cameroon have continuously/often been:

    1) human activities such as poor farming practices, unsustainable use of water resources, increased demand of water, deforestation, land-use change, etc.,
    2) human-induced climate change.

    Measures for preparedness and emergency by the Cameroon Drought Management Policy have been:

    step 1: appointment of a national drought management policy commission;
    step 2: definitions of the goals and objectives of a risk-based national drought management policy;
    step 3: seeking of stakeholder participation; definition and resolution of conflicts between key water use sectors, considering also transboundary implications;
    step 4: inventory of data and financial resources available and identification of groups at risk,
    step 5: preparedness/writing of the key tenets of the national drought management policy and preparedness plans;
    step 6: development of educational programmes for all age and stakeholder groups;
    step7: evaluation and revision of national drought management policy and measures for preparedness plans.

    The Cameroon Drought Management Policy – based in the ministry of environment and sustainable development – has collaborated with those of education, health, land, water, breeding, agriculture, social welfare, women, etc), foundations, donors and international organizations (UNICEF, FAO, World Food Program, etc) to develop and study new approaches to disaster assistance, including innovative tools and technologies.

    For example, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Emergency Response program supported research and pilot-testing of approaches to improve water and sanitation in emergencies. The ministry of health has jointly developed innovations with the foundation’s Water, Sanitation & Hygiene, Enteric and Diarrheal Diseases, and Vaccine Delivery teams – including chlorine dispensers, the global oral cholera vaccine (OCV) stockpile, new toilet prototypes, and improved slum sanitation methods.

  • #12111
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    Dear participants drought recently occurred in Lesotho and this is said to have happened over four decades in the country. There was a prolonged period of time without rainfall and this attributed to no agricultural production at all, death of livestock. Consequently, there has been many impacts such as increased prices of food, low industrial production, malnutrition and other associated impacts in the country. Also, the water sources portrayed declining levels of water both ground and surface waters. Emergent water supply had to be administered to the affected communities as a result of this drought occurrence and this also had impacts in the neighbouring country south Africa since Lesotho acts an interbasin transfer from katse dam situated in the highlands region of Lesotho. The rivers dried to a level where the downstream users of water in the lowland zone suffered extremely pertaining to water supply. Short term actions were taken by key and line institutions to minimize drought impacts while long-term actions are still being devised currently to enhance this phenomenon of drought occurrence. Factors contributing to drought include among others insufficient infrastructure to delivery water from the highlands, limited IWRM increase in industrialization and population growth. Thank you all for the information you shared to your areas.

  • #12140
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    Dear all,

    The north of Cameroon is located in the Sahel region and experienced droughts in 2009 and 2011 and floods in 2010. Each of these years has resulted in a high degree of crop failure, leaving the population with limited or non-existent stocks for the lean season and increasing the gap between food production and food needs. An estimated 5.5 million people are living in the Far North region of Cameroon and the majority are farmers and agro-pastoralists. One-third of rural households are food vulnerable or food insecure.

    Thank you.

  • #12193
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    Dear Kees,
    In response to the question given below , I am trying to discuss some important points belongs to my Area i,e Sindh, Pakistan.

    Think of factors that contribute to drought risk in your areas and the corresponding measures for preparedness and emergency. How effective are they?

    Pakistan is situated in South Asia and positioned between Latitudes of 240N and 370N and Longitudes of 620E and 750E. Pakistan has experienced total of three droughts of severe intensity since its inception. Mostly the southern part of Pakistan comprising Sindh and Baluchistan provinces is affected by droughts when the annual precipitation is low or there is no rainfall at all in affected areas. Drought in 2000 was the worst ever drought in the history of Pakistan in terms of the duration, population and area affected. In 2014 a severe intensity drought again struck the southeastern part of Pakistan comprising of Sindh province. Sindh spread over 88071.25 sq miles and can be longitudinally distributed into three distinct regions; Hilly tract in west comprising of 14375 sq miles, is known as Kohistan; the central fertile portion along Indus river stretched over 14375 sq miles is known as Nara and the Thar Desert region in the East stretched over 13750 sq miles.

    Most of the scientists agree that the droughts occur when the average rainfall in a particular region is below average. Most parts of Tharparker did not receive rains in 2013 resulting into famine like situation. The district was declared as calamity affected area in February 2014 by the Sindh relief department due to rising number of human and animal fatalities. Survival of maximum population consisting of nomads solely depends on rain water to feed their animals

    Following recommendations are proffered to avoid repetition of such events in future i,e corresponding measures for preparedness and emergency
    1- Development of comprehensive drought management strategies.
    2- Development of early warning system and timely mitigation measures
    3- Construct small large water reservoirs.
    4- Extensive reforestation be carried out.

    Shamim memon

  • #12270
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    Federica Ferrari

    Hi, it’s Federica from Mozambique. I can see many common points between my country and the Nigeria goveramental policy. Also Mozambique was and still is intensively affected by drought since last year, like southern africa (south africa, lesoto, malawi, zimbabwe) wich affected the food security and economy. Moreover we are in the middle of a economical, political, social……..everything crisis, then politics are vey busy with other things and drought is managed by some international funds poor coordinated because a system for that is not in place. Still a legal and illigal deforatstation happen, smart agriculture is still a dream and resilience for rural community is not stregteneed. We are just carry on day by day.

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